European Projects

NuLeAF contributes to a number of European Projects either through attending meetings or submitting written contributions.  Below are outlines of the projects in which we are, or have, participated.

Current Projects

Forum on Stakeholder Confidence FSC

FSC is an ongoing  forum set up by the Nuclear Energy Agency, itself an agency of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) which aims to facilitate the sharing of experience in the societal aspects of radioactive waste management. It has produced a series of workshop reports and flyers on a range of topics which can be downloaded from its website.

MoDeRN (Monitoring Developments for safe Repository operation and staged closure

The successful implementation of a geological disposal programme relies on both the technical aspects of a sound safety strategy and scientific and engineering excellence, as well as on social aspects such as stakeholder acceptance and confidence. Monitoring has the potential to contribute to both of these aspects and thus to play an important role in a Waste Management Organisation’s (WMOs) ability to successfully implement a geological disposal programme.

In order to develop monitoring activities, the need, potential use, and limitations must be understood.

The need will be derived from the main monitoring objectives. These tend to emphasise the potential contribution of monitoring activities to the safety of the disposal process, to the decision-making in a phased implementation programme, and to stakeholder confidence. Potential use of monitoring would be integrated into the safety strategy, the decision making process and into communications with stakeholders. The work proposed in this project is focused on monitoring needs defined in the context of envisaged or planned repository developments, actual monitoring activities and technologies. Developments will emphasise both technical and social aspects relevant to monitoring, in order to identify monitoring requirements. Expert and lay stakeholder engagement is a core activity of the proposed project. Both aim at gaining a better understanding: first of what different stakeholders might expect from monitoring; and second on how monitoring activities and results may address these expectations.

The project has a lifespan of 4 years (2009 – 2013). Brendan Breen is the Key Participant on behalf of the UK partner, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority. For further information on the project, contact the Project Co-ordinator, Stefan Mayer,

Completed Projects


The main objective of this project was to promote a new approach to the governance of spent fuel and long-lived radioactive wastes by bringing together a multidisciplinary network of radioactive waste management agencies, concerned stakeholders and the academic research community, in order to assess the feasibility of a European Observatory for long-term governance on radioactive waste management. The final project report can be viewed here.

COWAM (Communities Waste Management) IN PRACTICE

The objectives of COWAM IN PRACTICE (CIP) are:

  • to contribute to enabling European societies to make actual progress in the governance of radioactive waste management (RWM) while contributing to increasing societal awareness of and accountability for radioactive waste management in Europe in order to reach practicable, accountable and sustainable decisions
  • to follow up and analyse five innovative national processes on RWM on the basis of COWAM 2 results (click here to view ) with a view to supporting stakeholders, particularly local communities, directly in their engagement with their particular RWM programme(s) – and to capture the learning from that experience
  • to develop best practices and guidance for the application (implementation and improvement) of new inclusive governance of RWM approaches in the EU, including benchmarking on practical and sustainable decision making processes recognised as fair and equitable by the stakeholders in the short, medium and long term.

NuLeAF chairs the UK CIP Stakeholder Group, which provides a forum for discussion of the UK input into the project. The reports of the meetings of the UK CIP Stakeholder Group are available here.

A delegation of NuLeAF representatives attended a European Roundtable in Luxembourg on 8-9 April, 2010 on the practical application of the Aarhus Convention to the nuclear field. The presentations given to the Roundtable can be viewed here -European Roundtable presentations. Please note that this is a 9Mb file.

CIP has produced European level Guidelines for the inclusive governance of radioactive waste management. The Guidelines represent the principal messages and ideas from CIP delivered to Europe-27. The UK country report can be viewed here.

InSOTEC (International Socio-Technical Challenges for implementing geological disposal)

This project aimed to assist in identifying some of the key remaining socio-political challenges with regard to the implementation of geological disposal, and investigated in greater depth the relationship between these social challenges and the technological challenges.

The main objectives of the project were to:

  • identify and clarify socio-political challenges for implementing geological disposal, within their national context (including technical challenges)
  • develop further analytical insights into these challenges by means of a number of case studies, analysis of which would focus on selected topics related to the interplay between technical and socio-political challenges.
  • advance and facilitate mutual learning, and advise and assist scientists and technological experts to develop the tools and the ability to communicate in a two way process about their work and to engage with stakeholders on technical and safety issues (e.g. challenges identified in the PAMINA project) on communicating about safety cases.
  • advise the Implementing Geological Disposal Technology Platform(IGD-TP) on how to strengthen its position and message to the world of decision-makers

The project ran for 3 years commencing March 2011. The University of East Anglia was the UK project participant (contact Peter Simmons ). The project co-ordinator was the University of Antwerp (Anne Bergmans ). Details of all the project partners can be found here.  The final report has not yet been published.

IPPA (Implementing Public Participation Approaches in Radioactive Waste Disposal)

The IPPA project was designed to make significant progress towards implementing geological disposal by meeting social and political challenges in a proactive way. A number of countries are at different stages in nuclear energy and radioactive waste management programmes and the intention was to introduce to these a range of existing and novel methods of participation and transparency. The project aimed to generate new understanding about the effective implementation of processes for participation and transparency that would be of great value for the future of radioactive waste management programmes in Europe, including in particular the Implementing Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste Technological Platform.

The specific objectives of the project were:

  • to test and implement new approaches to risk communication and public participation related to repository development programmes,
  • to provide guidance to further develop participation and transparency by illustrating a way forward and suggesting concrete schemes for establishing a ‘safe space’ for discussion.
  • to explore how the processes for participation and transparency used at national level can be used in a cross-border and international context to make progress with issues of common interest,
  • to clarify different added value approaches in order to empower stakeholders, including implementers and communities, and to increase their awareness about how such approaches can be used,
  • to structure and analyse a broad spectrum of processes for participation and transparency in order to provide a framework for building understanding, thereby building a bridge to the Technological Platform,
  • to further develop and implement new methods for bridging the gap between research and implementation.

The project ran for 3 years from January 2011. Details of outcomes of the project can be found here . The project is being co-ordinated by Kjell Andersson of Karita Research. Galson Sciences Ltd is the UK partner.


The main objective of this project was to promote a new approach to the governance of spent fuel and long-lived radioactive wastes by bringing together a multidisciplinary network of radioactive waste management agencies, concerned stakeholders and the academic research community, in order to assess the feasibility of a European Observatory for long-term governance on radioactive waste management. The final project report can be viewed here.


The main objective of PAMINA is to improve and harmonise integrated performance assessment (PA) methodologies and tools for various disposal concepts of long-lived radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in different deep geological environments. The PAMINA aims to provide a sound methodological and scientific basis for demonstrating the safety of deep geological disposal of such wastes, that will be of value to all national radioactive waste management programmes, regardless of waste type, repository design, and stage, that has been reached in PA and safety case development.

The Final PAMINA workshop was held in Hohenkammer, Germany on 28 – 30 September, 2009. Click on this linkto view the presentations given at the workshop.


The acronym ARGONA stands for “Arenas for Risk Governance”. The project investigates how approaches of transparency and deliberation relate to each other and to the political system in which decisions, for example on the final disposal of nuclear waste, are ultimately taken. The project also studies how good risk communication can be undertaken and the conduct of public consultations. Details of the project deliverables can be found on the website.


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